viernes, 29 de mayo de 2009


Patient: A person under health care. The person may be waiting for this care or may be receiving it or may have already received it. There is considerable lack of agreement about the precise meaning of the term "patient."

It is diversely defined as, for examples:

  • A person who requires medical care.
  • A person receiving medical or dental care or treatment.
  • A person under a physician's care for a particular disease or condition.
  • A person who is waiting for or undergoing medical treatment and care
  • An individual who is receiving needed professional services that are directed by a licensed practitioner of the healing arts toward maintenance, improvement or protection of health or lessening of illness, disability or pain. (US Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services)
  • A sick, injured or wounded soldier who receives medical care or treatment from medically trained personnel. (US Army Medical Command).(paciente)

Otoscope: Instrument for looking in the ear. Today, otoscopic or ophthalmoscopic heads can usually be attached to the base (which supplies the electrical power) to look at the ears or eyes. (otoscopio)

nutrition: 1) The science or practice of taking in and utilizing foods. 2) A nourishing substance, such as nutritional solutions delivered to hospitalized patients via an IV or IG tube. (nutricion)

Pharmacology: The study of drugs, their sources, their nature, and their properties. Pharmacology is the study of the body's reaction to drugs. It emerged as a major area in American medicine largely due to the efforts of John Jacob Abel (1857- 1938) who stressed the importance of chemistry in medicine, did research on the endocrine glands, first isolated epinephrine (adrenaline), crystallized insulin(1926), and became the first pharmacology professor in the U.S.(farmacologia)

Hormone: A chemical substance produced in the body that controls and regulates the activity of certain cells or organs. Many hormones are secreted by specialized glands such as thethyroid gland . Hormones are essential for every activity of daily living, including the processes of digestion,metabolism, growth, reproduction, and mood control. Many hormones, such as the neurotransmitters, are active in more than one physical process. (hormona)

Abortion: In medicine, an abortion is the premature exit of the products of conception (the fetus, fetal membranes, and placenta) from the uterus. It is the loss of a pregnancy and does not refer to why that pregnancy was lost. A spontaneous abortion is the same as a miscarriage. The miscarriage of 3 or more consecutive pregnancies is termed habitual abortion.(aborto)

Nebulizer: A device for administering a medication by spraying a fine mist into the nose. Also known as an atomizer. (nebulizador)

X-ray: 1. High-energy radiation with waves shorter than those of visible light. X-rays possess the properties of penetrating most substances (to varying extents), of acting on a photographic film or plate (permitting radiography), and of causing a fluorescent screen to give off light (permitting fluoroscopy). In low doses X-rays are used for making images that help to diagnose disease, and in high doses to treat cancer. Formerly called a Roentgen ray. 2. An image obtained by means of X-rays.(rayos X)

Hypoxia: A subnormal concentration of oxygen . By contrast with normoxia (normal oxygen) and anoxia (the absence or near absence of oxygen). From hyp- (below) + -ox- (oxygen) + -ia.(hipoxia)

Stethoscope: An instrument used to transmit low-volume sounds such as the heartbeat (or intestinal, venous, or fetal sounds) to the ear of the listener. A stethoscope may consist of two earpieces connected by means of flexible tubing to a diaphragm placed against the skin of the patient. The stethoscope has become one of the symbols of the medical profession.The origins of the stethoscope can be traced back to the French physician, Laënnec, who invented a crude model in 1819. It has undergone many modifications since then. The original consisted of a wooden box that served to help physicians hear the sounds within the chest cavity.(estetoscopio)


A thin, flexible tube. For example, a catheter placed in a vein provides a pathway for giving drugs, nutrients, fluids, or blood products. Samples of blood can also be withdrawn through the catheter. (cateter)


As officially defined by the World Health Organization, a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being, not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.(salud)


The occurrence of more cases of a disease than would be expected in a community or region during a given time period. A sudden severe outbreak of a disease such as SARS.(epidemia)

Enema: Liquid injected into the rectum. An enema may be used for therapeutic (such as to stimulate evacuation of the bowels) or diagnostic purposes. (enema)


Relating to salt. As an adjective, "saline" means "salty, containing salt." As a noun "saline" is a salt solution, often adjusted to the normal salinity of the human body. Salt, in medicine, is referring to sodium chloride. Sodium chloride is common table salt and the salt concentrated in the earth and in sea water. Certain concentrations of both sodium and chloride in the blood are essential for normal body functions. Saline solutions are commonly used in medicine as fluid replacements to treat or prevent dehydration (suero fisiologico)

Thermometer: A device used to measure the temperature of gaseous, liquid or solid matter or of a chemical reaction such as fire. Temperature measurement is important to a wide range of activities, including industry, scientific research, and health care. In health care, thermometers are used to measure the temperature of the human body. They include the following types: Oral thermometers (those placed under the tongue)
Rectal thermometers (those placed within the rectum)
Multi-purpose thermometers (those that can be placed under the tongue, in the rectum or under the armpit)
Eardrum thermometers (those placed inside the ear).
Basal thermometers (highly sensitive thermometers placed under the tongue or in the rectum to measure slight temperature changes indicating that ovulation has taken place in a woman)

(1) In surgery, a probe is a slender flexible rod with a blunt end used to explore, for example, an opening to see where it goes. (2) In molecular genetics, a probe is a labeled bit of DNA or RNA used to find its complementary sequence or locate a particular clone like homing in on a needle in a haystack. (sonda)

That part of the central nervous system that is located within the cranium . The brain functions as the primary receiver, organizer and distributor of information for the body. It has two (right and left) halves called "hemispheres."(cerebro)

Lancet: A small pointed knife; a surgical instrument with a short, wide, sharp-pointed, two-edged blade; a little knife with a small point. Lancets are used today to prick the skin (a finger, foot, ear lobe, etc.) to obtain a small quantity of capillary blood for testing. (lanceta)

: Illness or sickness often characterized by typical patient problems (symptoms) and physical findings (signs). Disruption sequence: The events that occur when a fetus that is developing normally is subjected to a destructive agent such as the rubella virus.
( enfermedad)

Asthma: A common disorder in which chronic inflammation of the bronchial tubes (bronchi) makes them swell, narrowing the airways. Asthma involves only the bronchial tubes and does not affect the air sacs or the lung tissue itself. Airway narrowing in asthma is due to three major processes acting on the bronchi: inflammation (see above), spasm (bronchospasm), and hyperreactivity (over-reaction of the bronchi to factors that can precipitate asthma). The incidence of asthma has risen dramatically in the past 20 years, a period far too short to reflect any significant changes in the gene pool. This supports the important role that environmental influences (allergy, infection, lifestyle, and diet) have on the development of asthma.(asma)

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